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History Of Islam

History Of Islam

Origins and the Life of Muhammad the Prophet

Islam, Judaism, and Christianity are three of the world’s great monotheistic faiths. They share many of the same holy sites, such as Jerusalem, and prophets, such as Abraham. Collectively, scholars refer to these three religions as the Abrahamic faiths, since it is believed that Abraham and his family played vital roles in the formation of these religions.
Islam began with the Prophet Muhammad. Islam means “surrender” and its central idea is a surrendering to the will of God. Its central article of faith is that “There is no god but God and Muhammad is his messenger”.
Followers of Islam are called Muslims. Muslims believe that they are following in the same tradition as the Judeo-Christian figures Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus who they believe were significant prophets before Muhammad.

The Qur’an, the holy book of Islam, provides very little detail about Muhammad’s life; however, the hadiths, or sayings of the Prophet, which were largely compiled in the centuries following Muhammad’s death, provide a larger narrative for the events in his life (although there is significant debate in the Muslim world as to which Hadiths are accurate). 

Muhammad was born in 570 C.E. in Mecca, and his early life was unremarkable. He married a wealthy widow named Khadija who was 15 years older and his employer. Around 610 C.E., Muhammad had his first religious experience, where he was instructed to recite by the Angel Gabriel. After a period of introspection and self-doubt, Muhammad accepted his role as God’s prophet and began to preach word of the one God, or Allah in Arabic. His first convert was his wife.
Muhammad’s divine recitations form the Qur’an and are organized into books (surahs) and verses (ayat). Because these revelations focused on a form of monotheism considered threatening to Mecca’s ruling tribe (the Quraysh), which Muhammad was a part of, the early Muslims faced significant persecution. Eventually in 622, Muhammad and his followers fled Mecca for the city of Yathrib, which is known as Medina today, where his community was welcomed. This event is known as the Hijra, or emigration. 622, the year of the Hijra (A.H.), marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar, which is still in use today.
Between 625-630 C.E., there were a series of battles fought between the Meccans and Muhammad and the new Muslim community. Eventually, Muhammad was victorious and reentered Mecca in 630.
One of Muhammad’s first actions was to purge the Kaaba of all of its idols (before this, the Kaaba was a major site of pilgrimage for the polytheistic religious traditions of the Arabian Peninsula and contained numerous idols of pagan gods). The Kaaba is believed to have been built by Abraham (or Ibrahim as he is known in Arabic) and his son, Ishmael. The Arabs claim descent from Ishmael, the son of Abraham and Hagar. The Kaaba then became the most important center for pilgrimage in Islam.
In 632, Muhammad died in Medina. Muslims believe that he was the final in a line of prophets, which included Moses, Abraham, and Jesus.

After Muhammad’s Death

The century following Muhammad’s death was dominated by military conquest and expansion. Muhammad was succeeded by the four “rightly-guided” Caliphs (khalifa or successor in Arabic): Abu Bakr (632-34 C.E.), Umar (634-44 C.E.), Uthman (644-56 C.E.), and Ali (656-661 C.E.). The Qur’an is believed to have been codified during Uthman’s reign. The final caliph, Ali, was married to Fatima, Muhammad’s daughter and was murdered in 661. The death of Ali is a very important event; his followers, who believed that he should have succeeded Muhammad directly, became known as the Shi’a (“party” or “followers”), referring to the followers of Ali. Today, the Shi’ite community is composed of several different branches, and there are large Shia populations in Iran, Iraq, and Bahrain. The Sunnis, who do not hold that Ali should have directly succeeded Muhammad, compose the largest branch of Islam; their adherents can be found across North Africa, the Middle East, as well as in Asia and Europe.
During the seventh and early eighth centuries, the Arab armies conquered large swaths of territory in the Middle East, North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, and Central Asia, despite on-going civil wars in Arabia and the Middle East. Eventually, the Umayyad Dynasty emerged as the rulers, with Abd al-Malik completing the Dome of the Rock, one of the earliest surviving Islamic monuments, in 691/2 C.E. The Umayyads reigned until 749/50 C.E., when they were overthrown. The Abbasid Dynasty assumed the Caliphate and ruled large sections of the Islamic world. However, with the Abbasid Revolution, no one ruler would ever again control all of the Islamic lands. 
5 Pillars Of Islam

5 Pillars Of Islam

Here Are The 5 Pillars Of Islam

Almost as soon as the Arab armies of Islam conquered new lands, they began erecting mosques and palaces and commissioning other works of art as expressions of their faith and culture. Many aspects of religious practice in Islam also emerged and were codified. The religious practice of Islam, which literally means “to submit to God”, is based on tenets that are known as the Five Pillars, arkan, to which all members of the Islamic community, Umma, should adhere.

1. The Profession of Faith—The Shahada

The Profession of Faith, the shahada, is the most fundamental expression of Islamic beliefs. It simply states that “There is no God but God and Muhammad is his prophet.” It underscores the monotheistic nature of Islam. It is an extremely popular phrase in Arabic calligraphy and appears in numerous manuscripts and religious buildings.

2. Daily Prayers—Salat

Muslims are expected to pray five times a day. This does not mean that they need to attend a mosque to pray; rather, the salat, or the daily prayer, should be recited five times a day. Muslims can pray anywhere; however, they are meant to pray towards Mecca. The faithful pray by bowing several times while standing and then kneeling and touching the ground or prayer mat with their foreheads, as a symbol of their reverence and submission to Allah. On Friday, many Muslims attend a mosque near midday to pray and to listen to a sermon, khutba.

3. Alms-Giving—Zakat

The giving of alms is the third pillar. Although not defined in the Qu’ran, Muslims believe that they are meant to share their wealth with those less fortunate in their community of believers.

4. Fasting during Ramadan—Saum

During the holy month of Ramadan, the ninth month in the Islamic calendar, Muslims are expected to fast from dawn to dusk. While there are exceptions made for the sick, elderly, and pregnant, all are expected to refrain from eating and drinking during daylight hours.

5. Pilgrimage to Mecca—Hajj

All Muslims who are able are required to make the pilgrimage to Mecca and the surrounding holy sites at least once in their lives. Pilgrimage focuses on visiting the Kaaba and walking around it seven times. Pilgrimage occurs in the 12th month of the Islamic Calendar
Asma ul Husna

Asma ul Husna

99 Names of Allah (Al Asma Ul Husna)

Here is a list of most beautiful names of Allah (SWT) or 99 names of Allah (SWT) used in Islam with their meanings in English. “Asma Ul Husna belongs to Allah so call on him by them.” (Glorious Qur’an 7:180)

He is Allah the Creator, the Maker, the Fashioner; His are the most excellent names, whatever is in the heavens and the earth declares His glory, and He is the Mighty, the Wise. (Glorious Qur’an 59:24)

Those who believe, and whose hearts find satisfaction in the remembrance of Allah for without doubt in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find satisfaction. (Glorious Qur’an 13:28)

Abu Huraira reported Prophet Muhammad SAW as saying: Verily, there are ninety-nine names for Allah, i.e. hundred excepting one. He who enumerates them would get into Paradise. And Hammam has made this addition on the authority of Abu Huraira who reported it from Prophet Muhammad SAW that he said: “He is Odd (one) and loves odd number.” (Sahih Muslim 35:6476)

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Name
Transliteration
Meaning
Explanation
1

الرَّحْمَنُ

Ar-Rahmaan
The Beneficent
He who wills goodness and mercy for all His creatures
2

الرَّحِيمُ

Ar-Raheem
The Merciful
He who acts with extreme kindness
3

الْمَلِكُ

Al-Malik
The Eternal Lord
The Sovereign Lord, The One with the complete Dominion, the One Whose Dominion is clear from imperfection
4

الْقُدُّوسُ

Al-Quddus
The Most Sacred
The One who is pure from any imperfection and clear from children and adversaries
5

السَّلاَمُ

As-Salam
The Embodiment of Peace
The One who is free from every imperfection.
6

الْمُؤْمِنُ

Al-Mu’min
The Infuser of Faith
The One who witnessed for Himself that no one is God but Him. And He witnessed for His believers that they are truthful in their belief that no one is God but Him
7

الْمُهَيْمِنُ

Al-Muhaymin
The Preserver of Safety
The One who witnesses the saying and deeds of His creatures
8

الْعَزِيزُ

Al-Aziz
The Mighty One
The Strong, The Defeater who is not defeated
9

الْجَبَّارُ

Al-Jabbar
The Omnipotent One
The One that nothing happens in His Dominion except that which He willed
10

الْمُتَكَبِّرُ

Al-Mutakabbir
The Dominant One
The One who is clear from the attributes of the creatures and from resembling them.
11

الْخَالِقُ

Al-Khaaliq
The Creator
The One who brings everything from non-existence to existence
12

الْبَارِئُ

Al-Baari
The Evolver
The Maker, The Creator who has the Power to turn the entities.
13

الْمُصَوِّرُ

Al-Musawwir
The Flawless Shaper
The One who forms His creatures in different pictures.
14

الْغَفَّارُ

Al-Ghaffaar
The Great Forgiver
The Forgiver, The One who forgives the sins of His slaves time and time again.
15

الْقَهَّارُ

Al-Qahhaar
The All-Prevailing One
The Dominant, The One who has the perfect Power and is not unable over anything.
16

الْوَهَّابُ

Al-Wahhab
The Supreme Bestower
The One who is Generous in giving plenty without any return. He is everything that benefits whether Halal or Haram.
17

الرَّزَّاقُ

Ar-Razzaq
The Total Provider
The Sustainer, The Provider.
18

الْفَتَّاحُ

Al-Fattah
The Supreme Solver
The Opener, The Reliever, The Judge, The One who opens for His slaves the closed worldly and religious matters.
19

اَلْعَلِيْمُ

Al-Alim
The All-Knowing One
The Knowledgeable; The One nothing is absent from His knowledge
20

الْقَابِضُ

Al-Qaabid
The Restricting One
The Constrictor, The Withholder, The One who constricts the sustenance by His wisdom and expands and widens it with His Generosity and Mercy.
21

الْبَاسِطُ

Al-Baasit
The Extender
The Englarger, The One who constricts the sustenance by His wisdom and expands and widens it with His Generosity and Mercy.
22

الْخَافِضُ

Al-Khaafid
The Reducer
The Abaser, The One who lowers whoever He willed by His Destruction and raises whoever He willed by His Endowment.
23

الرَّافِعُ

Ar-Rafi
The Elevating One
The Exalter, The Elevator, The One who lowers whoever He willed by His Destruction and raises whoever He willed by His Endowment.
24

الْمُعِزُّ

Al-Mu’izz
The Honourer-Bestower
He gives esteem to whoever He willed, hence there is no one to degrade Him; And He degrades whoever He willed, hence there is no one to give Him esteem.
25

المُذِلُّ

Al-Muzil
The Abaser
The Dishonourer, The Humiliator, He gives esteem to whoever He willed, hence there is no one to degrade Him; And He degrades whoever He willed, hence there is no one to give Him esteem.
26

السَّمِيعُ

As-Sami’
The All-Hearer
The Hearer, The One who Hears all things that are heard by His Eternal Hearing without an ear, instrument or organ.
27

الْبَصِيرُ

Al-Baseer
The All-Seeing
The All-Noticing, The One who Sees all things that are seen by His Eternal Seeing without a pupil or any other instrument.
28

الْحَكَمُ

Al-Hakam
The Impartial Judge
The Judge, He is the Ruler and His judgment is His Word.
29

الْعَدْلُ

Al-Adl
The Embodiment of Justice
The Just, The One who is entitled to do what He does.
30

اللَّطِيفُ

Al-Lateef
The Knower of Subtleties
The Subtle One, The Gracious, The One who is kind to His slaves and endows upon them.
31

الْخَبِيرُ

Al-Khabeer
The All-Aware One
The One who knows the truth of things.
32

الْحَلِيمُ

Al-Haleem
The Clement One
The Forebearing, The One who delays the punishment for those who deserve it and then He might forgive them.
33

الْعَظِيمُ

Al-Azeem
The Magnificent One
The Great One, The Mighty, The One deserving the attributes of Exaltment, Glory, Extolement, and Purity from all imperfection.
34

الْغَفُورُ

Al-Ghafoor
The Great Forgiver
The All-Forgiving, The Forgiving, The One who forgives a lot.
35

الشَّكُورُ

Ash-Shakoor
The Acknowledging One
The Grateful, The Appreciative, The One who gives a lot of reward for a little obedience.
36

الْعَلِيُّ

Al-Aliyy
The Sublime One
The Most High, The One who is clear from the attributes of the creatures.
37

الْكَبِيرُ

Al-Kabeer
The Great One
The Most Great, The Great, The One who is greater than everything in status.
38

الْحَفِيظُ

Al-Hafiz
The Guarding One
The Preserver, The Protector, The One who protects whatever and whoever He willed to protect.
39

المُقيِت

Al-Muqeet
The Sustaining One
The Maintainer, The Guardian, The Feeder, The One who has the Power.
40

الْحسِيبُ

Al-Haseeb
The Reckoning One
The Reckoner, The One who gives the satisfaction.
41

الْجَلِيلُ

Al-Jaleel
The Majestic One
The Sublime One, The Beneficent, The One who is attributed with greatness of Power and Glory of status.
42

الْكَرِيمُ

Al-Kareem
The Bountiful One
The Generous One, The Gracious, The One who is attributed with greatness of Power and Glory of status.
43

الرَّقِيبُ

Ar-Raqeeb
The Watchful One
The Watcher, The One that nothing is absent from Him. Hence it’s meaning is related to the attribute of Knowledge.
44

الْمُجِيبُ

Al-Mujeeb
The Responding One
The Responsive, The Hearkener, The One who answers the one in need if he asks Him and rescues the yearner if he calls upon Him.
45

الْوَاسِعُ

Al-Waasi’
The All-Pervading One
The Vast, The All-Embracing, The Knowledgeable.
46

الْحَكِيمُ

Al-Hakeem
The Wise One
The Wise, The Judge of Judges, The One who is correct in His doings.
47

الْوَدُودُ

Al-Wadud
The Loving One
The One who loves His believing slaves and His believing slaves love Him. His love to His slaves is His Will to be merciful to them and praise them
48

الْمَجِيدُ

Al-Majeed
The Glorious One
The Most Glorious One, The One who is with perfect Power, High Status, Compassion, Generosity and Kindness.
49

الْبَاعِثُ

Al-Ba’ith
The Infuser of New Life
The Resurrector, The Raiser (from death), The One who resurrects His slaves after death for reward and/or punishment.
50

الشَّهِيدُ

Ash-Shaheed
The All Observing Witness
The Witness, The One who nothing is absent from Him.
51

الْحَقُّ

Al-Haqq
The Embodiment of Truth
The Truth, The True, The One who truly exists.
52

الْوَكِيلُ

Al-Wakeel
The Universal Trustee
The Trustee, The One who gives the satisfaction and is relied upon.
53

الْقَوِيُّ

Al-Qawwiyy
The Strong One
The Most Strong, The Strong, The One with the complete Power
54

الْمَتِينُ

Al-Mateen
The Firm One
The One with extreme Power which is un-interrupted and He does not get tired.
55

الْوَلِيُّ

Al-Waliyy
The Protecting Associate
The Protecting Friend, The Supporter.
56

الْحَمِيدُ

Al-Hameed
The Sole-Laudable One
The Praiseworthy, The praised One who deserves to be praised.
57

الْمُحْصِي

Al-Muhsee
The All-Enumerating One
The Counter, The Reckoner, The One who the count of things are known to him.
58

الْمُبْدِئُ

Al-Mubdi
The Originator
The One who started the human being. That is, He created him.
59

الْمُعِيدُ

Al-Mueed
The Restorer
The Reproducer, The One who brings back the creatures after death
60

الْمُحْيِي

Al-Muhyi
The Maintainer of life
The Restorer, The Giver of Life, The One who took out a living human from semen that does not have a soul. He gives life by giving the souls back to the worn out bodies on the resurrection day and He makes the hearts alive by the light of knowledge.
61

اَلْمُمِيتُ

Al-Mumeet
The Inflictor of Death
The Creator of Death, The Destroyer, The One who renders the living dead.
62

الْحَيُّ

Al-Hayy
The Eternally Living One
The Alive, The One attributed with a life that is unlike our life and is not that of a combination of soul, flesh or blood.
63

الْقَيُّومُ

Al-Qayyoom
The Self-Subsisting One
The One who remains and does not end.
64

الْوَاجِدُ

Al-Waajid
The Pointing One
The Perceiver, The Finder, The Rich who is never poor. Al-Wajd is Richness.
65

الْمَاجِدُ

Al-Maajid
The All-Noble One
The Glorious, He who is Most Glorious.
66

الْواحِدُ

Al-Waahid
The Only One
The Unique, The One, The One without a partner
67

اَلاَحَدُ

Al-Ahad
The Sole One
The One
68

الصَّمَدُ

As-Samad
The Supreme Provider
The Eternal, The Independent, The Master who is relied upon in matters and reverted to in ones needs.
69

الْقَادِرُ

Al-Qaadir
The Omnipotent One
The Able, The Capable, The One attributed with Power.
70

الْمُقْتَدِرُ

Al-Muqtadir
The All Authoritative One
The Powerful, The Dominant, The One with the perfect Power that nothing is withheld from Him.
71

الْمُقَدِّمُ

Al-Muqaddim
The Expediting One
The Expediter, The Promoter, The One who puts things in their right places. He makes ahead what He wills and delays what He wills.
72

الْمُؤَخِّرُ

Al-Mu’akhkhir
The Procrastinator
The Delayer, the Retarder, The One who puts things in their right places. He makes ahead what He wills and delays what He wills.
73

الأوَّلُ

Al-Awwal
The Very First
The First, The One whose Existence is without a beginning.
74

الآخِرُ

Al-Akhir
The Infinite Last One
The Last, The One whose Existence is without an end.
75

الظَّاهِرُ

Az-Zaahir
The Perceptible
The Manifest, The One that nothing is above Him and nothing is underneath Him, hence He exists without a place. He, The Exalted, His Existence is obvious by proofs and He is clear from the delusions of attributes of bodies.
76

الْبَاطِنُ

Al-Baatin
The Imperceptible
The Hidden, The One that nothing is above Him and nothing is underneath Him, hence He exists without a place. He, The Exalted, His Existence is obvious by proofs and He is clear from the delusions of attributes of bodies.
77

الْوَالِي

Al-Waali
The Holder of Supreme Authority
The Governor, The One who owns things and manages them.
78

الْمُتَعَالِي

Al-Muta’ali
The Extremely Exalted One
The Most Exalted, The High Exalted, The One who is clear from the attributes of the creation.
79

الْبَرُّ

Al-Barr
The Fountain-Head of Truth
The Source of All Goodness, The Righteous, The One who is kind to His creatures, who covered them with His sustenance and specified whoever He willed among them by His support, protection, and special mercy.
80

التَّوَابُ

At-Tawwaab
The Ever-Acceptor of Repentance
The Relenting, The One who grants repentance to whoever He willed among His creatures and accepts his repentance.
81

الْمُنْتَقِمُ

Al-Muntaqim
The Retaliator
The Avenger, The One who victoriously prevails over His enemies and punishes them for their sins. It may mean the One who destroys them.
82

العَفُوُّ

Al-Afuww
The Supreme Pardoner
The Forgiver, The One with wide forgiveness.
83

الرَّؤُوفُ

Ar-Ra’oof
The Benign One
The Compassionate, The One with extreme Mercy. The Mercy of Allah is His will to endow upon whoever He willed among His creatures.
84

مَالِكُ الْمُلْكِ

Maalik-ul-Mulk
The Eternal Possessor of Sovereignty
The One who controls the Dominion and gives dominion to whoever He willed.
85

ذُوالْجَلاَلِ وَالإكْرَامِ

Zul-Jalaali-wal-Ikram
The Possessor of Majesty and Honour
The Lord of Majesty and Bounty, The One who deserves to be Exalted and not denied.
86

الْمُقْسِطُ

Al-Muqsit
The Just One
The Equitable, The One who is Just in His judgment.
87

الْجَامِعُ

Al-Jaami’
The Assembler of Scattered Creations
The Gatherer, The One who gathers the creatures on a day that there is no doubt about, that is the Day of Judgment.
88

الْغَنِيُّ

Al-Ghaniyy
The Self-Sufficient One
The One who does not need the creation.
89

الْمُغْنِي

Al-Mughni
The Bestower of Sufficiency
The Enricher, The One who satisfies the necessities of the creatures.
90

اَلْمَانِعُ

Al-Maani’
The Preventer
The Withholder.
91

الضَّارَّ

Ad-Daarr
The Distressor
The One who makes harm reach to whoever He willed and benefit to whoever He willed.
92

النَّافِعُ

An-Naafi’
The Bestower of Benefits
The Propitious, The One who makes harm reach to whoever He willed and benefit to whoever He willed.
93

النُّورُ

An-Noor
The Prime Light
The Light, The One who guides.
94

الْهَادِي

Al-Haadi
The Provider of Guidance
The Guide, The One whom with His Guidance His believers were guided, and with His Guidance the living beings have been guided to what is beneficial for them and protected from what is harmful to them.
95

الْبَدِيعُ

Al-Badi’
The Unique One
The Incomparable, The One who created the creation and formed it without any preceding example.
96

اَلْبَاقِي

Al-Baaqi
The Ever Surviving One
The Everlasting, The One that the state of non-existence is impossible for Him.
97

الْوَارِثُ

Al-Waaris
The Eternal Inheritor
The Heir, The One whose Existence remains.
98

الرَّشِيدُ

Ar-Rasheed
The Guide to Path of Rectitude
The Guide to the Right Path, The One who guides.
99

الصَّبُورُ

As-Saboor
The Extensively Enduring One
The Patient, The One who does not quickly punish the sinners.